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Actual Jungian Currents
Prof. Dr. Daniel Wilhelm
"I was I asked
many times about my psychotherapeutic or analytic method. I can not
give this issue A strict response. The treatment is in each separate
case. If a doctor tells me" is "strictly this or that" method ",
doubt the therapeutic effect. (...) Psychotherapy and analysis are
as diverse as the individuals themselves. "
Carl G. Jung
Jung's death in 1961, has been in the field of analytical psychology
continuous movement and expansion carried out by its main representatives,
those who were emphasizing and developing some of the specific concepts of
Jungian thought at the same while they integrated to the recent developments
in other psychological currents, such as psychoanalytic or even produce new
and creative theoretical approaches that extended for a new and original way
the traditional theoretical premises and clinics of depth psychology of
not however until 1985, in which Andrew Samuels tried to systematize and
order the principles and tenets of the emerging theoretical lines, naming
the professional members of these new schools called "posjungians".
said the posjungian field is characterized more by debates and discussions
on the nuclear common set of accepted ideas.
to the definition of Samuels, "A posjungian is someone who can connect to,
interested in, and encouraged to participate in debates posjunguianos,
either on the basis of clinical interest, intellectual inquiry, or a
combination of both."
the decades of the 50 'and 60', it was accepted that analytical psychology
there were two schools: "School of London" and the "school of Zurich",
recognizing that the orientation of the first was mainly "clinical" while
the second was mostly "symbolic".
During the 70's, however, two situations that changed this traditional
division occurred: first, the growing global number of professionals
graduated from the school of Zurich made it became the center of
international movement of analysts, the while being recognized and accepted
more and more the guidelines and principles of the London School. This
mutual downplayed the alleged exclusion of the terms "clinical" and "symbolic"
which defined the Jungian field so far. On the other hand, the rise in the
early 70 'for a third group of founders analysts named "archetypal
psychology" and directed by James Hillman, ended up giving rise to a new
location within the Jungian field, which since I was divided into three
schools called "classical school", "evolutionary school" and "archetypal
classical school includes what traditionally used to be the school of "Zurich"
while evolutionary comprises what used to be the school of "London".
each of these schools has evolved to present obvious differences, Samuels
stressed that "we must not forget that they all have a common fund of
theoretical concepts and clinical practice, and that each of the three
schools thrives said common but privileging and emphasizing some more than
other elements "background.
classical school, in general, preserved in its work the
theoretical basis and practical methodology originally introduced by Jung,
which does not mean they do not save room for growth and evolution.
evolutionary school has been linking aspects and principles of
contemporary psychoanalysis, mainly the English School, emphasizing the
importance of early experiences and the phenomena of transference and
countertransference during analysis.
archetypal school emphasizes the fundamental concept of "archetype",
based on the same to address a specific, original whole vast phenomenology
of both the dream as those related to fantasy experiences imaginal mode.
to Andrew Samuels there are six principles, which, together, constitute the
field of post-Jungian analytical psychology.
three are theoretical: 1) the archetype;
development of personality from infancy to old age.
three come from clinical practice are: 1) the analysis of
transference and countertransference;
symbolic experiences of the self in the analysis;
the development of differentiated imagery as presents.
in which each of the schools makes these principles would be:
regard to the theory, the classic school establishes this
development of personality.
of clinical practice:
symbolic experiences of the self
development of the imagery
analysis of transference and countertransference
evolutionary school, the theoretical scale would be:
Development of personality
from the clinical point of view is:
analysis of transference and countertransference
symbolic experiences of the self
development of the imagery
archetypal school theoretical priority would be:
development of personality
for the clinical context:
development of imagery,
symbolic experiences of the self
analysis of transference and countertransference.
relevant of each school characteristics are:
classical Jungian school:
representatives of the classical school made their training in the CG Jung
Institute in Zurich, and many of them were or had been in analysis with Jung
himself, so his findings and reflections were sent to them directly by him.
Hart, a representative of this school, defines a classic Jungian analysis as
a "continuous mutual discovery that gives consciousness to the unconscious
life, gradually freeing the individual from compulsion and senselessness The
classical approach. - Adds Hart - it is based on a spirit of dialogue, both
between conscious and unconscious, as between the two participants in the
analytical process. "
according to this theoretical line, the "conscious" is absolutely necessary
in this process, unlike what sustains the archetypal school, for which the
"I" is just one more of the many autonomous archetypal entities.
the classical school differs from the evolutionary school, as it does not
define development in terms of age or psychological stages, but through
individual achievement of self conscious subject undergoing analysis.
concepts, such as archetype, inner world, individuation, symbol, dreams,
self, totality, anima and animus, shadow, complex, symbolic reality,
conflict between opposites, psyche, compensation, collective unconscious,
etc., are the theoretical and practical bases of this discipline.
Particularly important is the emphasis the school places on the development
of adult subject, especially during this stage that Jung defines as "the
second half of life", in which, usually in the form of a profound spiritual
crisis, the person is "driven" from the depths of his inner nature, through
and force the archetype of the self, to make the way of his own
individuation, their potential and sense of wholeness.
Analytical psychology developed by Jung and his colleagues are not fully
addressed the deep psychological aspects of childhood or child development,
nor devoted considerable attention to the usefulness of a correct
understanding of the various forms of relationships that can develop in
consultation between patient and analyst.
his followers, however, tried to unify the two areas of research, linking
the developmental stages and early mental states with the nature of
transference and countertransference, including them in psychoanalytic
meanwhile, showed more interest in the field of creative and symbolic
activity, structure and contents of the collective psyche, devoting an
important part of his psychological research to the second half of life,
this being the stage of human development in which these issues were most
likely to manifest.
London, there was a group of psychoanalysts including Melanie Klein, Wilfred
Bion, Donald Winnicott and John Bowlby were, they achieved very important
findings in the area of children's mental development later, and in its
relations with psychic adult life, the that would lead to a revision of the
basic psychoanalytic theory.
published their major works between 40-60 'and became the leading figures of
the "school of object relations" that was formed within the British
Psychoanalytic Society and continued its own evolution since.
same time, also in London, Dr. Michael Fordham and his colleagues were
formed as Jungian analysts and founded the Society of Analytical Psychology.
followed with great interest the new psychoanalytic discoveries and began to
undertake research to develop a coherent theory of child development with
the Jungian tradition, while trying to incorporate new and relevant
psychoanalytic findings, in particular those relating to the early
development and transfer and countertransference, and its usefulness in the
Jungian analysts said Klein's vision was the best of the early
psychoanalytic approaches to mental life.
importance it had for the theory of Fordham's work Klein, Winnicott, Bion
and others, especially on early object relationships and self pathologies
allowed to enter the whole experience in the field of child development
within the framework of Jungian psychological research.
conclusions obtained from his own clinical work, Fordham failed to
demonstrate that the concept of "self" as was originally described by Jung,
could be reformulated to integrate into the dynamics of child development
through the proposal of the existence of a "self" or integrated primary,
integrated "self" is the original primary psychosomatic unity of the child,
giving it a unique identity.
series of interactions with the environment, initiated both from within and
from without, which Fordham called "de-integration", the subject gradually
developing a set of experiences that in successive "re-integration"
accumulate to over time to lead to self unique and particularly of that
the individuation process is performed through the self dynamic adaptations
performed by its own internal space activities within the context of its
through its model describes the process through which the self is
de-integrated or divided spontaneously.
the parties is active or is activated on contact and interact with the
environment, and at the right time reinstates the experience through sleep,
reflection and other forms of mental assimilation to carry out its
development and growth.
of trade, which in the early days mainly takes place between the child and
his mother, as with the "others" that are significant, is what allows the
progressive development of the "I" as the "I" It is the "de-embedded" most
allows us to understand that child development has physical, mental and
emotional content, and that the self is actively engaged in the process of
its own structure and training, as with the realization of their own
potential in time, while simultaneously it adapts to what the environment
offers both qualitatively and quantitatively in the form of "experience".
succeeded in integrating the fundamental concepts of Jung about the self and
nature and prospective function of the psyche, with conceptions of psychic
and somatic early development.
psychology" was created by James Hillman and a group of Jungian Zurich in
the early 70s'.
as a reaction to what these analysts considered in the Jungian theory as "unjustified
metaphysical assumptions" and a "complacent and mechanical application of
archetypal school rejects the term "archetype" but retains the "archetypal"
says untenable distinction between "archetypes" and "archetypal images", as
holding that a psychic level is only possible to find images.
position is essentially phenomenological hermeneutics relativize reaching
dimension in the work with imagination.
to Hillman says, the "archetypal" is not a "category", but simply a
consideration, one perspective that can be applied to any image.
does not accept or proposes the metaphysical existence of archetypes prior
to character images.
who adhere to this line of thought, any image, including those that are
considered trivial, may be referred to and accepted as "archetypal".
uses the term "revisionar" as a central concept of his practice, where "revisionar"
the "deliteralizing" or "metaphorically" reality.
that the purpose of the analysis is not to make the unconscious conscious,
but a metaphor literal, transform reality into "imaginal" individuals can
make sense and realize that "imagination is reality," and that every image
has implications deeply metaphorical potential.
"imaginal psychology" is used synonymously with "archetypal psychology".
Hillman, the "imaginal" is as real as any external reality, which has its
theoretical foundation in the fact that any phenomenon, whether belonging to
the external or internal world, takes his "reality" only after its
constitution and represent psychic level.
position is consistent with that adopted by Jung to practice active
imagine "actively", the individual should be able to see emerging psychic
images as if they were autonomous and possess an equivalent to the external
"reality" ontological dimension.
used this method and applies to all images, not just those that arise and
appear during the practice of the technique of active imagination.
fundamental premise of the imaginal psychology is "stick to the image",
focus and work with the image from the image, leaving aside all the complex
interpretations and hermeneutical implications about it.
the image or representation is manifestly not what appears to be, but is the
"visible" side of something that remains dormant.
both Jung to Hillman, the picture is exactly what appears to be, and nothing
express the psyche selected a varied repertoire of images available that is
particularly suitable for the purposes of a specific metaphoric purpose.
practice of imaginal psychology, the technique involves the proliferation of
images, strictly abide by this phenomenon, and specifying implicit
descriptive and metaphorical qualities.
methodology achieves a progressive evocation of images, compromising the
subject of careful attention to these phenomena as they arise, in order to
achieve qualitative descriptions and further elaboration of the metaphorical
also believes that one of the main objectives of the analysis is to achieve
the relativization of self through imagination.
Relativize the imagination allows me, descentrarlo, I can prove that,
ultimately, is also an image, or even the most important, but only one among
many others of equal importance.
say that Hillman is not a hermeneutic but a phenomenologist, which
prioritizes the phenomenon adhering to the image, refusing to its
interpretation or its reduction to mere category concept, which holds that
all hermeneutics involves the unavoidable risk of reductionism.
Hillman says about it: "If for Freud the elongated objects are penises, for
dark objects are Jungian shadows."
any dogmatic adherence to the reduced space of a particular theory or
epistemology, can not but lead to distortions that are characteristic of
generalization and to denial of the various aspects of reality.
imaginal psychology gives a special value to the particularity of the images
on the generality of any concept.
image has a dimension that presents the descriptive qualities are of such a
degree of diversity that are potentially infinite, as they are their
says that "images and fantasy are at the basic level of reality. These
images are the primary activity of consciousness. The images are the only
reality we apprehend directly."
we found differences between their respective approaches, there is a strong
spirit of collaboration and integration between different posjunguianas
schools, as well as the whole of them with respect to other theoretical and
practical guidelines for other therapeutic currents.
the following sentence Hester Solomon is the clearest example to plot it. "It
is indeed ironic that the great Freudian and Jungian traditions separated
for historical reasons, personal and professional philosophies policies
Considered as a whole, the movement of tradition Analytical as a whole,
encompassing both psychoanalysis and analytical psychology could offer,
despite the real differences that may exist, a broader and potentially more
creative way for the emergence of enriching developments in the broad field
of depth psychology in general and of the contents and processes of self in